March 27, 2023

Indian Society


Salient features of Indian Society, Diversity of India

  • Features of Indian society
  • Diversity (Types – caste, linguistic, social and religious, race, tribe and ethnicity, culture)
  • Challenges posed by Diversity
  • Unity
  • Pluralism
  • Unity in Diversity
  • Inequality and Exclusion
  • Family System
  • Examples of above

Role of Women and Women’s Organization

  • Women’s organizations in Indian history
  • Types of women’s organizations
  • Level of penetration
  • 19th Century Social Reform Movements and Early Women’s Organisations –
    • Agrarian Struggles and Revolt
    • Participation in Freedom Struggle
  • Women’s organization (With Examples)
  • Problems faced by women’s organizations
  • Is a larger vocal role possible and ways to achieve the same
  • Role of SHGs, Micro finance Institution

Population and Associated Issues

  • Basic Demography of India
  • Population Trends in India and their Implications
  • Causes and Effects of Over Population
  • Challenges of Population Explosion
  • Changing Age Structure of Indian Population
  • Demogarphic Dividend: Boon or Bane for India
  • Population Aging in India
  • India’s Population Policy & Initiatives

Poverty and Developmental Issues

  • Concept of Development and Poverty
  • Types of Poverty
  • Measurement of Poverty – Poverty Line
  • Causes of Poverty
  • Poverty as a Social Problem
  • Socio-economic Spread of Poverty
  • Consequences of Poverty –
    • Inequality
    • Continuation of Vicious Cycle
    • Who is worst affected by poverty?
  • Problem of Rising Urban Poverty
  • Poverty Alleviation Initiatives
  • Policy shifts from “Trickle Down” Economics to Inclusive or Pro-poor Development to Reduce Poverty
  • Relation between Poverty Reduction and Development: Poverty-Inequality-Development Nexus

Urbanization, their problems and their remedies

  • Urbanisation Trends in India and Their Implications – Demographic and Social Dimensions
  • Factors Driving Urbanisation
  • State of Service Delivery and Challeges posed by Urbanisation
  • Problems of Urban Areas
  • Social Consequences of Urbanisation
  • Impact of Urbanisation in Rural Areas
  • Urban Planning and Role of Urban Local Bodies (ULBs)
  • Reforms Required and Government Initiatives Taken So Far
  • Problems of Slums

Effects of Globalization on Indian society

  • Understanding Globalisation – Its Different Dimensions
  • Globalisation & Culture – Homogenisation vs. Glocalisation
  • Factors Driving Globalisation
  • Globalisation & India
  • Impact of Globalisation on India – Socio-cultural, economic, on women, agrarian sector etc.
  • Does Globalisation cause Poverty?

Social Empowerment

  • Which are the Socially Disadvantaged Groups?
  • Meaning and concept of social empowerment
  • Dimensions of Social Empowerment
  • Why do we need social empowerment?
  • Government Initiatives to Aide Social Empowerment
  • Empowerment in reality and India’s experience


  • Communalism – Its Characteristics
  • Communalism in India in the Past
  • Communalism in Contemporqary India
  • Causes of Communalism
  • Consequences of Communalism
  • Measures to Control & Eradicate Communalism
  • Secularism as an Antidote to Communalism


  • Concept of Region & Regionalism
  • Different Forms of Regionalism
  • Regionalism in India
  • Causes of Regionalism
  • Concept of ‘Sons of Soil’
  • Consequences of Regionalism
  • Federalism & Regionalism
  • Role of Regional Parties
  • Measures to Contain Regionalism
  • Regionalism in the International Sphere


  • Concept of Secularism
  • Indian Model of Secularism
  • Secularism in India
  • Nature & Practice of Secularism in India
  • Uniform Civil Code
  • Challenges faced by Secularism in India
  • Measures to Make India Truly Secular